How to Tread Water – Techniques and Drills

Learning how to tread water is an important skill that beginners must master in order to gain self-confidence in the water.

Treading water is a basic swimming technique, where you move your limbs to keep your body afloat in an upright position, and with your head above the water.

A man smiling while treading water.
Knowing how to tread water increases water confidence.

This article will demonstrate two different ways of treading water, a popular style and then my personal style.

Afterward, we provide a sequence of exercises to learn this technique.

Video Demonstration

Below you will find a video showing both ways of treading water:

Treading Water Using a Popular Style

One of the popular techniques to tread water consists of sculling water in a horizontal plane with the arms and flutter kicking in a vertical plane with the legs.

1) To scull water, you basically lift your arms sideways at shoulder level and then sweep your hands forward and backward against the water.

The pressure of your arms and hands against the water creates some vertical lift that keeps your body afloat.

2) The flutter kick also provides some lift that helps you to keep your body afloat.

To flutter kick, you kick alternatively with each leg forward then backward with a long supple leg. Your feet are pointed in direction of the ground.

Treading Water Using My Personal Style

I learned how to tread water as a child, and I don’t remember if we were given precise instructions on what we should do with our arms and hands.

As a result, the technique is less refined, but it works well for me:

What I do is the following:

1) My arms are angled at about 90°, with my forearms horizontal and pointing forward, my palms turned downward and my elbows close to the body.

2) Then I make circles in the water with my hands, they move down and outward, then up and inward, then down and outward again and so on.

What I basically do is to push the water down with circular movements.

3) My feet also do a circular kind of movement that is similar to the breaststroke kick. The initial position is with my knees bent and my feet in their natural resting position.

4) Then I move my feet down and outward while they go in plantar flexion, then they move up and inward in dorsiflexion.

So what I basically do is to push down the water with the inside of my lower leg and foot.

Learning How to Tread Water – Popular Style

To learn how to tread water using the popular style, you can practice the following exercises:

1) First, practice the swimming exercises given in the sculling water and flutter kick articles.

2) Then grab a swimming noodle, place it around your back and under your armpits.

Make sure the swimming noodle by itself is enough to support you in the water.

3) Supported by the swimming noodle, simultaneously scull the water with your arms and flutter kick with your legs.

4) Practice these movements until they provide enough lift to keep you afloat in the water, even without a swimming noodle.

5) Finally, once you feel confident enough, remove the swimming noodle and try to tread water without floatation devices.

In the beginning, only do this under the supervision of an experienced swimmer or a lifeguard.

Note: Some instructors use the eggbeater kick as an alternative to the flutter kick, but I think it is more challenging to learn for beginners.

Learning How to Tread Water – Personal Style

To learn how to tread water using my personal style, you can practice the following swimming exercises:

1) Practice the breaststroke kick on dry land.

2) Practice the breaststroke kick in the water using floatation aids.

3) Grab a swimming noodle, place it under one armpit, around your back and make it exit under the other armpit. Make sure that the swimming noodle by itself is enough to support you in the water.

4) Practice the arm and leg motions in a vertical position, first separately and then together.

5) Practice these motions up to the point where they provide enough lift to support you in the water even without a swimming noodle.

6) At that point, make sure to have a friend or a lifeguard supervise you, then try to tread water without a swimming noodle. At first, do short repeats, then slowly build up your endurance.


Knowing how to tread water, in addition to giving you water confidence, also helps in the following cases:

  • It also allows you to cover short distances in the water.
  • It allows you to stop in the middle of a swim and to orient yourself while swimming in open water.
  • It allows you to stop to recover your breath if you have swallowed water.
  • It allows you to stop to rinse your swim goggles if they are fogged up.
  • etc.

So it is worth spending some time learning this basic swimming technique. Good luck!

Related Pages

You may also be interested in the following articles that cover basic swimming techniques:

12 thoughts on “How to Tread Water – Techniques and Drills”

  1. Avatar

    I can tread water for a very short time by sculling without using feet, but when I tried your personal style, I can’t seem to keep my mouth out of the water long enough to breathe comfortably.

    I haven’t been to the pool in a while and this was one time, I do wish I could learn to tread water efficiently someday!

    Meed more inner thigh strength perhaps?

    1. Christophe

      I think it’s more related to pushing down the water at the right angle with the inside of the lower leg and foot.

      The way you catch the water with your legs is similar to the way you do this in the breaststroke.

      So maybe practicing the exercises for the frog kick in the breaststroke could help you…

      1. Avatar

        Christophe thanks for replying!

        I’ve tried concentrating on the pushing down part before, didn’t work too well for me, but, here’s what I found out today.

        I scull side to side with my hands, set my knees wide, and I concentrate on the pushing out part rather than the pushing down part, which, I think, follows naturally (for me)!

        Needs a few adjustments though!

        All your frog kick and treading videos have been really really helpful!

    1. Christophe

      Reny, could it be that you have a low body fat percentage? That could be an explanation of why it is more difficult for you to float.

      But with practice, it should be possible for you to be able to tread water using the techniques presented above.

      Just practice patiently, it can take quite some time to master the techniques discussed in this article.

      1. Avatar

        I’m not a swimmer myself but I think nervousness has a lot to do with it.

        The more contracted your muscles are the harder it is to float. The more relaxed you are, the more relaxed your muscles are and the easier it is.

        That’s advice I got from a swimming coach a long time ago. What do you think Christophe?

        1. Christophe

          Sure, nervousness can be a factor. However, I think that it prevents people to use proper technique rather than causing muscles to be contracted.

  2. Avatar

    I’m not very professional in swimming but to tell the truth, I began with your site and then gradually with a similar site and… finally I succeeded!

    You maybe ask, what’s the success? Very simple: I don’t scare of deep part of pool!

    I can swim and enjoy the water, swimming and more important of all: I can water treading and the most important “egg beater!”

    I really owe you and the other youtube video about swimming.

    Now a question please: An amateur (like me), how long should usually be able to do water treading? In other words, “how long” is natural and good for a regular guy?

    Obviously, I’m not a young, strong, professional water polo player. Thank you a billion!

    1. Christophe

      Hi Hamid,

      I’m glad that you were able to succeed in learning to swim, being able to enjoy it and now even be able to do water polo! :-)

      Now, as for your eggbeater question, I can’t give you an answer. I never learned the eggbeater as a child, and a few years ago when I tried to learn it I had to stop because I have some knee issues.

      That being said, for the two water treading techniques I show above in the article, I think I can do them for a few minutes at a time without a problem.

      Hope this helps.

  3. Avatar

    I would like to say that when swimming sometimes when you are nervous, you may thread too fast. This is not good. So remember to calm down.

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