This article covers the arm stroke movements used in the breaststroke.
Knowing the proper arms movements is important for an efficient swim stroke.
The following video explains the technique in more detail:
As you can see above, when you are swimming breaststroke your arms stay in the water all the time and execute a semicircular movement.
That’s because breaststroke is the only one of the competitive strokes where the arm recovery occurs in the water.
More about this technique below.
Arm Stroke Phases
When swimming breaststroke, the arm movements can be divided into five phases:
- Glide Phase
Let’s discuss these arm stroke phases in more detail.
To start our discussion, let’s consider that you are in the glide phase.
1) You are gliding forward on your chest, being horizontal in the water.
2) Your arms are extended forward, your hands are close together, with the palms facing downwards.
3) Your legs are straight, held together and your feet are pointed.
Now the outsweep of the arms begins.
Your palms turn slightly outwards, and your arms slide sideways until they are outside of the shoulders.
You keep your arms straight and your elbows close to the water surface.
Seen from above your body forms a Y-like shape. This phase is not propulsive.
During the catch, you change the orientation of your arms so that your forearms and palms are facing backward. This sets up the propulsive phase of the arm stroke.
To do so, at the end of the outsweep, you bend your elbows once your hands are spread apart wider than your shoulders.
Then move your forearms downward and backward while your elbows stay close to the water surface.
Do this until your forearms are vertical and facing backward and your palms are in line with your forearms.
This phase is also not propulsive, so avoid using any force before your forearms are vertical.
The insweep is the propulsive phase of the arm stroke.
So once you have made the catch with your forearms, move your arms backward, then inwards and upwards so that you sweep diagonally backward against the water.
During the insweep, you bring your hands below your chest and your elbows toward your rib cage.
At the end of the insweep, your palms should be facing each other.
Once your hands are close together under your chest at the end of the insweep, move them forward just below the water surface, until your arms are extended again, ready for the next stroke cycle.
Once your arms are extended, you can again observe a short glide phase.
Arm Speeds and Force Applied During the Stroke Cycle
The arm speeds and force applied while swimming breaststroke change during each phase of the stroke cycle:
1) During the outsweep and catch you should not apply any force because otherwise, you will only push water sideways or down.
As a consequence, your arms should move at a moderate speed.
2) The insweep is propulsive, and henceforth you should push with your arms against the water and move them quickly.
3) The recovery should also occur swiftly but without using force because otherwise, you will only create unnecessary drag.